Movement Beyond Borders
Movement Beyond Borders: Migration as a global issue
MWF 2- 2:50pm Williams 317
Prof. Chip Gagnon
324 Muller Center
Office hours: MWF 12-1pm and by appointment
Last revised 2/12/2018
- Migration Information Source
- Immigration Policy Center
- Center for migration studies
- Mexican Migration Project (Princeton)
- Migration Policy Institute
- Maps of Immigrants in the US (from MPI)
- Links on migration globally
The movement of people across borders is a central political issue throughout the world. The issue of migration is a globally controversial one that has at times even become the focus of violence.
Although most of us are aware of the mobility of goods and capital in a global economy, we tend to be less aware that the mobility of labor too is an integral part of the global economic system, or that most migration takes place not between North and South, but within the global South. We also tend to forget that the movement of people, both as workers and as refugees, is not a new phenomenon. We also lose sight of the fact that the vast majority of the world’s population, including in the poorest countries, do not migrate across international borders.
The movement of people from their homelands into other parts of the world changes the migrants themselves as well as the receiving communities. Population mobility across international borders and the resultant diasporas or transnational communities thus raise questions about the meanings of borders; the nature of identity and culture and their relationship to politics; and the realities of multiculturalism even in places that think of themselves as monocultural.
- Why do people migrate?
- Why do the vast majority of people around the world not migrate?
- How does immigration differ from other forms of population movement?
- What is a refugee, and how does a refugee differ from other kinds of migrants?
- What does migration tell us about the meaning of borders?
- How does population mobility highlight the challenges to nation-states and to national identity?
- How is migration related to other processes of globalization?
- How is it related to xenophobia and other forms of violence against immigrants?
- How does population movement affect the migrants themselves, and the local communities where they live?
These are a few of the questions that will be informed by our examination of cases from around the globe, using a range of texts, including journalistic accounts, academic writings, theorizations of migration, fiction, films, and the words of migrants themselves. We’ll also consider how movement in our own lives has shaped us, and how it fits into broader notions of migration. We’ll examine migration from the macro, structural perspective, as well as the local perspective, including a consideration of migrant workers in the western New York and Finger Lakes region.
This is not a policy course, so we will not be focused on day to day political debates and/or trends in the US or elsewhere. What we seek to understand are the processes of migration, causes and effects. We will be bringing current events into those discussions, but this is not a current events course or one focused on policies.
We will also be learning the process of writing a major research paper. You’ll be expected to come up with a question or puzzle relating to the theme of the course to a subject that is of interest to you, and to develop a strategy for answering that question.
- Stephen Castles, Hein de Haas and Mark J. Miller, The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World (5th edition, 2014). Be sure to get the 5th edition, it differs substantially from earlier editions. This is available in the IC bookstore.
Other required readings:
- The rest of the required readings are available on Sakai, and are accessible from this online syllabus/daily assignments page; from the pdf version of the syllabus that is available in Sakai; or directly in Sakai, under “Resources”, arranged by date the reading is assigned.
- You should print hard copies of each reading and bring to class unless I indicate otherwise; part of our discussion will be referencing specific passages in the readings.
- Films: We will see at least five films over the course of the semester; these films illustrate various aspects of migration that are covered by the course
- Journey of Hope (Switzerland-Turkey)
- Lost Baggage (South Korea)
- 9500 Liberty (US)
- Human Flow (Germany)
- Hate (La Haine) (France) (Click for official guide to the film)
- Students are also strongly encouraged to follow issues related to international population movements, refugees, immigration, etc. in the news.
Readings listed as “Required” are mandatory and serve as background for class discussions. The readings come from a range of disciplines — sociology, anthropology, politics, economics, religious studies, history, law — and are of varying complexities; some are quite difficult. If you have any questions on the readings, please ask in class, stop by my office, or e-mail me. I would suggest that you take notes on the readings as you do them, including questions about the reading or things that are unclear. The amount of reading is generally small enough that you should have time to carefully read and take notes on the readings before each class.
I expect you to do the readings and be prepared for each class.
If you do not understand the readings after we discuss them in class, please see me immediately. Some of the readings are very challenging, and I expect you to speak with me if anything is not clear.
“Doing the readings” doesn’t mean just sitting down and mechanically going through the articles; that’s a sure way to make even an interesting article boring.
Reading is an active and interactive process between the reader and the text. If you’re really reading a text you are also reacting to it. I’ve included a wide range of texts in order to provoke a wide range of responses from readers.
Reading should also be a reflective process. To really understand an article deeply it is usually necessary to read it and think about it, and then read it again, and think about it, and discuss it with others, write about it and read it yet again. I’ve found that even after many readings, when I read a text in order to explain it to someone else I get new perspectives on the author’s arguments and assumptions, on the text’s strengths and weaknesses.
So when I say “do the readings,” I mean “engage yourself with the ideas of the text.” I understand that some of the texts are quite complex and that not all of them are entertaining. But struggle is part of the reading experience. If something’s not clear, if it’s confusing, talk about it with others outside of class, and/or bring it up in class. As I mentioned above, taking notes on a text while you read it or re-read it is also a very good way to engage the text and to make sure you understand it.
I’d like you to involve yourself in the text so that reading is an interactive experience. Here’s a suggestion:
As we do the readings and then discuss them, I’d like to have us think of them not only as political arguments or analyses, but rather as stories, or more specifically as different genres of stories all looking at a similar phenomenon. In this case we are considering stories that all involve the movement of people across borders.
Any story has main characters, both positive and negative; beginning situations, that is, the place or state in which the characters are at the start of the story, including motivations for movement; and ending situations, the place or state in which the characters find themselves at the end. In between are various kinds of events and experiences that the characters go through. Often, these experiences have major impacts on the characters, such that the end state is significantly different from the beginning; that is, the end or the end-to-be finds the characters in (perhaps) a different situation. Often they themselves are changed, but just as often they also change the people with whom they have come into contact, as well as the places they have been.
In stories about immigration and migration, the key event is movement. But what kind of movement? What “stories” are the authors of our readings telling about the movements of humans across borders? What makes immigration a special kind of movement? How does movement cause change? What kinds of meanings are given to the borders and to what is inside the borders? Keep in mind that in these stories the authors can make the main characters be individuals (either migrants or “natives”), groups of people, and/or entire countries.
In your first written assignment you’ll be asked to think about movements that you’ve done in your life, why you’ve done them, how they’ve affected you, how they’ve affected the people in the places from which and to which you moved. Also think about the concept of “border” or “boundary.” How does the way we think about boundaries determine how we think about what’s inside those boundaries?
By looking at migration and immigration in these ways, I hope we will have a constructive and innovative set of discussions on this topic. It should also provide some interesting insight into the set of readings we’ll be discussing over the course of the semester, and provide us with new insights into the movement of people across borders but also into racism, multiculturalism, and other questions of identity and culture.
The goal of the course is to get us to think critically about the notion of migration, and thus about the concepts of borders, groupness, movement, culture and identity. The written assignments are meant to be an integral part of this process. But so too are class participation and the readings themselves.
Class participation will count for 20 percent of the grade. Learning is an active process; if you think about the things you’ve learned the best, they’re usually things that you haven’t sat back passively and “absorbed,” but rather things that you learned by actively taking part and practicing. I therefore expect each of you to be active participants in your learning. To be an effective participant also means having done the readings and being prepared to take part in discussions. All of these will go into your class participation grade, which includes:
- Attendance. I expect students to be present at every class. For every absence after the fourth one, your final grade will be reduced by 1/3 of a grade (that is, from an A to an A-, for example).
- Being prepared. I expect you to have done the assigned readings for the day and to have thought about them before class.
- Participation. Classroom discussion of readings is a key part of the learning process. By actively taking part you also improve your chances of doing well on the written assignments. This is especially so for an Honors Seminar.
- No electronic devices. During class all electronic devices must be turned off. This includes laptops, cell phones, iPads, etc. If you cannot bear to be parted from your device, you should take another class. Texting, checking email, etc. in class will count as an absence for that day. If there is an emergency please take the text outside of the classroom.
Presentation, 5 percent of the final grade. Each of you will give a 15 minute presentation on some aspect of migration related to a specific country or migration system. Dates and other specifics will be discussed in class.
Written Assignments will count for the remaining 70 percent of the grade.
– The grade is reduced by 1/3 of a grade for each day an assignment is late (for example from A to A-).
– To pass the course you must hand in all of the written assignments, including those that are ungraded.
- Essay #1 due M 1/28 (ungraded). Think about movement in terms of your own life and family. In a short (3-4 page) essay, answer the following questions: Where do you come from? What kinds of migrations have you and/or your family undertaken? Why did the move(s) occur? What kinds of borders did you cross? How did the move(s) change or affect you? Explore the question broadly: consider changes in your sense of dependence, freedom, age, class, desires, habits. Also think about why you did not move at certain times (or perhaps ever). More generally I’d like you to think about the relationship between where you come from, where you are, and who you are.
- Family migration chart (ungraded). This is on Sakai and will also be handed out on the first or second day of class. Find out as much of the information as you can, focusing in particular on the kinds of moves your family has made, whether rural to urban or between urban areas; the motivations for the moves, not just personal but also those related to larger trends in society: why move away from a particular place? Why move to a particular place? We will discuss these over the course of the semester. Please have it completed (even if you have to include “don’t know”) by the beginning of February.
- Essay #2 due F 2/15, 4pm (20 percent). Short essay on the Histories section. Question to be handed out in class. Please submit on Sakai and hand in a hard copy as well.
- Short response on Asylum and refugees, due M 4/1 (ungraded). Compare US asylum and refugee policies to those of one other country of your choice, based on official government information (see syllabus assignment for M 4/1): 2-3 pages.
- Essay #3 due M 4/8, 4pm. (25 percent). Short essay on the Theory and Migration and Migrants sections. Question to be handed out in class. Please submit on Sakai and also give me a hard copy.
- Film reaction papers (ungraded). For the films we see this semester you will write a 2-3 page reaction that links the film to the assigned readings. The reaction paper is due at the start of the class following the screening.
- Journey of Hope (Swiss-Turkish production) W 2/13, 6pm CNS 112
- Lost Baggage (South Korea) (in class 3/25)
- 9500 Liberty (US) (in class, 4/17 and 4/19)
- Human Flow (Germany)
- Hate (La Haine) (France)
- Migration research paper (25 percent). This entails a series of assignments leading up to the writing of a research paper on a migration system of your choice. You will choose a migration system to focus on; identify the factors that explain the existence and continuation of that system; identify the kinds of evidence and sources you will use; how you will evaluate those sources; submit an annotated bibliography; and write a 10-12 page research paper on your topic. We will discuss this assignment in class prior to the first assignment’s due date.
- Assignment #1, Topic, due F 4/12, 4pm
- Assignment #2, Annotated Bibliography, due F 4/26, 4pm
- Final paper due during finals week,: Please submit on Sakai
- Ungraded assignments (5 percent) collectively count for 5 percent of your final grade.
You cannot pass the course unless you have handed in all written assignments.
Meaning of grades:
A = excellent: intense effort and remarkable achievement.
B = good: good effort and pretty good understanding
C = okay: barely adequate amount of effort or effort that is somewhat misfocused or mistargeted
D = inadequate effort or mistargeted effort
F = little or no effort or complete misunderstanding of expectations
If you get below a C, you should immediately come to see me so we can discuss your paper or exam.
If you have any questions about the class, the readings, the discussions, or anything else, I will be more than happy to meet with you either during office hours or at some other time. To schedule another time please see me after class, or contact me by e-mail.
Daily Reading Assignments
Go to assignments for:
1/23-1/25 Introduction | 1/28-2/6 Global Migration: Historical Background | 2/8-2/22 Causes of Global Migration: Theoretical understandings | 2/25-3/29 Migration and Migrants | 4/1-4/8 Asylum and Refugees | 4/10-5/6 Migration and Multicultural Societies
I. Introduction: How do we think about immigration and immigrants?
W 1/23 Introductions: Migrations and movements
We’ll meet each other and talk a bit about our own experiences with movement and borders.
F 1/25 Images of Immigrants and Immigration
– Castles, de Haas and Miller, Chapter 1, “Introduction”
– “Migration after the global economic crisis”
– Family Migration Chart (to be discussed in class)
II. Global Migration: Historical background
M 1/28 Theories of International Migration
– Castles, de Haas and Miller, Chapter 2, “Theories of Migration”
– Morawska, “Origin and Process of Immigration to the US” excerpts
Essay #1 (ungraded) due M 1/28:
Think about movement in terms of your own life and family. In a short (3-4 page) essay, answer the following questions: Where do you come from? What kinds of migrations have you and/or your family undertaken? Why did the move(s) occur? What kinds of borders did you cross? How did the move(s) change or affect you? Explore the question broadly: consider changes in your sense of dependence, freedom, age, class, desires, habits. Also think about why you did not move at certain times (or perhaps ever). More generally I’d like you to think about the relationship between where you come from, where you are, and who you are.
W 1/30 International Migration: History
– Castles, de Haas and Miller, Chapter 4, “International Migration before 1945”
F 2/1 Immigration into the US: Changes over time
– Piore, from Birds of Passage, “Historical evolution of long-distance migration in US”
To think about:
What has been the driving force behind migration to and within the US from Piore’s perspective? If this were a story, who would be the characters and what are their motivations? What changes over time? We’ll also look at how things have and haven’t changed since Piore published this classic analysis.
M 2/4 US immigrant experience: late 19th century
– Proulx, Accordion Crimes, part 1
To think about:
Immigrant experiences then and now
The Gangs of New York (Miramax, 2003)
W 2/6 Immigration: Other experiences
– Emmer, “Immigration into the Caribbean: The Introduction of Chinese and East Indian Indentured Laborers between 1839 and 1917”
III. Global Migration: Structural Forces
1. Capitalism (macrostructural)
F 2/8 Migration and migrants / Global Economy
– Harris, “Introduction: Capitalism and Migration” (excerpt, pp.1-15)
– Castles, de Haas and Miller, Ch. 11, “Migrants and minorities in the labor force”
Link of interest:
– 2017 US Dept of Homeland Security Yearbook of Immigration Statistics (pdf, at USDHS)
To think about:
What does capitalism have to do with migration? How does economic globalization — in trade, goods, services, and investments — drive labor migration?
2. Social networks (microstructural)
M 2/11 Migrations and social networks
– Harris, “Social Networks and Migration”
– Tilly, “Transplanted networks”
To think about:
What are social networks? How does looking at them help us to understand migration? Think about social networks and movements in your own life or the life of your family.
W 2/13 See Friday 2/15
Note: We will not be meeting for class on this day.
F 2/15 Film
Film: Journey of Hope (111 minutes) CNS 112, 2pm-4pm
To think about:
The connection between macrostructural and microstructural factors portrayed in the film. Also what do you think were the intentions of the film maker and the funders (Swiss and Turkish government)?
Essay #2 on Histories Section, due F 2/15 4pm (20% of grade)
3. Gender (microstructural)
M 2/18 Gendered Migration: The case of Mexico and the US
– Sotelo-Hondagneu, “Immigration, Gender and Settlement”
– Sotelo-Hondagneu, “Gendered Immigration”
To think about:
What do we learn about migration and migrants by examining them through the lens of gender?
4. Interaction of macro and micro structures
W 2/20 Migration: The rural to urban factor
– Gilbert and Gugler, “The Urban-Rural Interface and Migration” (2008)
F 2/22 Why Most People Don’t Migrate
– Malmberg, “Time and Space in International Migration”
To think about:
Why do most people not migrate?
IV. Migration and Migrants
M 2/25 States and Migration
– Castles, de Haas and Miller, Chapter 10, “State and International Migration: The Quest for Control”, pp.215-221 (Employer Sanctions, Legalization programmes, and Temporary foreign worker admission programmes), and pp.230-239
–Text of International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families (UN General Assembly, December 1990) In particular, focus on:
– Part III “Human Rights of all migrants workers and members of their families,” which applies to workers both documented and undocumented; and
– Part IV “Other rights of migrant workers and members fo their families who are documented or in a regular situation” which applies only to documented workers
– also check out the list of states that have ratified the treaty (on the last page of the document on Sakai) and think about which states are not on that list and why.
W 2/27 Migration to the Europe
– Castles, de Haas and Miller, Chapter 5, “Migration to Europe since 1945”
– Tilles, “Poland’s ‘anti-immigration’ government is overseeing one of Europe’s biggest waves of immigration–but doesn’t want to admit it”
– Politico, “Where Europe’s Migrants Are” (infographic, at Politico.eu)
Article of interest:
“As jobs die Europe’s migrants head for home”
F 3/1 Migration into the US
– Massey, “Closed Door Policy”
– Bacon, “How US Policies Fueled Mexico’s Great Migration”
– Bacon, “Let’s stop making migration a crime”
– Massey, “Today’s US-Mexico ‘border crisis’ in 6 charts”
– Leutert, “Who’s really crossing the US border and why they’re coming”
M 3/4 Migration into the US: Economics
– Cassidy, “The Facts about Immigration”
– Hanson, Liu and McIntosh, “Along the watchtower: The rise and fall of U.S.
– Campbell, “Undocumented immigrants pay billions of dollars in federal taxes each year”
– ITEP, “Undocumented Immigrants’ State & Local Tax Contributions”
W 3/6 Migration into the US: policies
– Tobar, “The Wanderers”
– Greenberg, “In the Valley of Fear”
– Lebo “Arizona’s Anti-Immigrant Law SB 1070”
– Jordan, “Arizona Squeeze on Immigration Angers Business”
– Bloomberg, “U.S. Farms Can’t Compete Without Foreign Workers”
– Dudley, ” Why care about undocumented immigrants”
– Also look over the chart “What Part of Legal Immigration Don’t You Understand”
Suggested reading of interest:
– Massey, Durand and Pren, “Why Border Enforcement Backfired”
Link of interest:
– “Welcome Dayton Plan: Immigrant Friendly City” (official City of Dayton resolution and plan to attract immigrants)
– “Fear and Loathing in Prime Time” (about cable news coverage of immigration in US)
F 3/8 TBA
3/11-3/15 Spring Break
M 3/18 Migration into Western New York and the Dairy Industry
Guest speakers: Carly Fox, IC alum and Senior Organizing & Advocacy Coordinator, Worker Justice Center of New York
– Fiscal Policy Institute, “Economic Contribution, Taxes Paid, and Occupations of Unauthorized Immigrants in New York State”
– Fox, Fuentes et al, “Milked: Immigrant Dairy Farmworkers in New York State”
– Roy Germano, “The Worst Job In New York: Immigrant America” (22:30) (on YouTube) Please watch before class M 3/18
Links of interest:
– Worker Justice Center of New York
– Cornell Farmworker Program
– Seminar on Dairy Farm Workers, by Prof. Beth Lyon, Clinical Professor of Law at Cornell Law School (video)
W 3/20 Migration in Asia
– Castles, de Haas and Miller, Ch.7, “Migration in the Asia-Pacific Region”
F 3/22 Migration into Japan
– Takenoshita, “Immigration Challenges in Japan”
– Onishi, “As Its Work Force Ages, Japan Needs and Fears Chinese Labor”
– Barron, ” Japan has a labor crisis that refugees could fix “
– Denyer, “Japan passes controversial new immigration bill”
– Guide to Japanese Visas, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
To think about:
The tension between economic growth and the concept of the nation-state.
M 3/25 – W 3/27 Film: Lost Baggage (immigrant workers in South Korea, 53 minutes)
– Lim, “Will South Korea Follow the German Experience?”
F 3/29 Migration within the Developing World
– Harris, “The Sweated Trades in the Developing World”
– Castles, de Haas and Miller, Chapter 8, “Migration in Africa and the Middle East ”
– Postel, ” Following the Money: Chinese Labor Migration to Zambia“
March 29 is the last day to withdraw from the course
V. Asylum and Refugees
M 4/1 Guest speakers on immigration in Rio Grande Valley
Palika Makam, US Program Coordinator, WITNESS & Diana Rosa, Operations Associate, WITNESS
WITNESS is a NYC based organization that ‘makes it possible for anyone anywhere to use video and technology to protect and defend human rights.’ You can learn more about them here: https://witness.org/ Link to the speakers’ bios: https://witness.org/about/staff-members/
– Borger, “Fleeing a hell the US helped create: why Central Americans journey north”
– NBER, “What happens when refugees come to the United States”
Written assignment due in class M 4/1
(ungraded): Compare US asylum and refugee policies to those of one other country of your choice, based on official government information (2-3 pages).
W 4/3 Asylum and Refugees
– Castles, de Haas and Miller, Chapter 10, section “Refugees and Asylum”, pp.221-230
– Moorehead, “The homeless and the rightless”
– MPI, “‘Silent Refugee Crises Get Limited International Attention”
– Drakulić, “High-heeled shoes”
– Kristof, “Seeking Asylum…”
– “Definition of Refugee” US Citizenship and Immigration Service
– “Affirmative Asylum Process at a Glance” US Citizenship and Immigration Service
– “A visual guide to 75 years of major refugee crises around the world” (at Washington Post, infographic)
Links of interest:
– Refugee issues, from Human Rights First
– US Form I-589 Application for Asylum
– Instructions for Form I-589
F 4/5 Asylum and refugees: Europe
– Schuster, “Turning refugees into ‘illegal migrants’: Afghan asylum seekers in Europe”
– Lehne, “How the Refugee Crisis Will Reshape the EU”
Links of interest:
– Photo essay on Afghan refugees in France (The Guardian, UK)
– Europe’s migrant crisis through 25 photos (CNN)
– Information on the Eurodac system (European Union official site)
– Information on “Dublin II” (European Union official site)
– Fotiadis & Ciobanu, “Closing Europe’s Borders Becomes Big Business”
– Fotiadis & Ciobanu, “People pay for research against migrants”
Links of interest:
– Institute of Race Relations, London. Information on asylum and refugees throughout Europe.
– Discussion of research paper. Discussion of possible topics.
M 4/8 Film: Human Flow (2:20:00) Time and place TBA
VI. Migration and Multicultural Societies
W 4/10 The meanings of borders
– Castles, de Haas and Miller, Chapter 3 (part), pp.55-68
To think about:
Why and how borders and states came to be thought of in culturally homogeneous ways. The relative modernity of the “nation-state” concept.
F 4/12 Racism, immigration, and whiteness: US
– Roediger, “Whiteness and ethnicity in the history of white ethnics in the US”
– Huntington, “The Hispanic Challenge”
– “Three Cheers for Assimilation” (interview with Huntington)
To think about:
How and why did the definition of who was “white” change over time in the US? How could someone who was Irish not be considered to be white?
Research paper: Assignment #1: Topic due, F 4/12, 4pm.
M 4/15 Immigration and moral panic
– Flores-Yeffal, Vidales & Martinez, “#WakeUpAmerica, #IllegalsAreCriminals: the role of the cyber public sphere in the perpetuation of the Latino cyber-moral panic in the US”
– Riley, “Assimilation: The nativists are restless”
M 4/22 Migration and multicultural society: France
– Hamilton, “The Challenge of French Diversity”
– Beaman, “North African Origins in and of the French Republic” and “Conclusion”
– Burke, “France and the Muslim Myth”
– Huston, “Batman’s Politically Correct European Vacation”
– Khouri, “Racists totally freak out over Muslim ‘Batman of Paris'”
Film of interest and readings on it:
– La Haine (Hate (97 minutes))
– Official guide to the film (at IC library online)
– Essay on significance of Hate (La Haïne) in France, pp.397-404 in CR
Links of interest:
– Front National (now named Rassemblement National) official website
– Front National page on Immigration
– Interview with Marine Lepen, head of FN (RT, 2011)
W 4/24 Immigration and Multiculturalism: South Africa
– Klotz, “South Africa as an Immigration State”
– Pineteh, “Illegal aliens and demons that must be exorcised from South Africa”
– McGreal, “Thousands seek sanctuary as South Africans turn on refugees”
– Crush, “The Perfect Storm: The Realities of Xenophobia in Contemporary South Africa” (please read the executive summary, pp.1-10; you can skim through the rest of the 50 page report)
F 4/26 Migration and citizenship: S. Korea and Japan
– Chung, “Workers or Residents? Immigrant incorporation in Korea and Japan”
To think about:
– The similarities and differences in these two cases. What explains the difference?
M 4/29 Immigration and citizenship: Europe
– Harnischfeger, “Swiss to decide on secret votes…”
– “Swiss reject new citizenship rule “
– Garber, “In Switzerland, You Can Be Denied Citizenship for Being Too Annoying”
– Mohdin, “Going against the grain, Switzerland will make it easier for outsiders to become citizens”
Link of interest:
– Switzerland Immigration Laws
– Netherlands citizenship sample questions
– UK Citizenship sample questions
– more UK sample questions
– US Citizenship sample questions
– More US questions
To think about:
Who should be a citizen and why? Who should have rights? Who should be deprived of rights? Which rights?
W 5/1 – F 5/3 No class
M 5/6 Conclusion
– Garling, “Startup Ducks Immigration Law With ‘Googleplex of the Sea'” (at Wired.com)
Migration research paper due during finals week, Friday 5/10 4pm: Please submit on sakai (25 percent of grade) (Note: the final exam for this course is officially scheduled for F 5/10 from 1:30pm-4pm)