Intro to IR

Introduction to International Relations
POLT 12800, sections 1 & 2
Fall 2017
Prof. Chip Gagnon
Section 1: Tu/Th 9:25am-10:40am Friends 210
Section 2: Tu/Th 10:50am-12:05pm Friends 210
Office: 324 Muller Center
tel. 607-274-1103
Office hours: Tu & Th 12:10-1pm and by appointment
Course website:
Updated 9/20/2017

Some IR blogs

Go to reading assignments for:
Th 8/31 – Tu 9/26, Introduction and Theory |  Th 9/28– Tu 10/3, Media and IR |  Th 10/5 – Th 10/26, Security: Terrorism and the Future of War | Tu 10/31 – Th 11/16, The International Economy | Tu 11/28 – Th 12/12, Culture and conflict

Why are you here?

Bombings. Wars and insurgencies. Weapons of mass destruction. Global trade. Nationalism. Ethnic and religious conflicts. The rise of China. Global peace.

These are some of the topics you hear about in the news, and that we’ll be studying over the course of the semester.

What we’ll be doing

One of the interesting things about international politics is that different people see it very differently.

We’ll be working to understand that diversity of views by looking at different conceptions of justice, conflicting views of human nature, competing visions of politics.

We’ll also explore some specific issues related to the international: the changing nature of warfare and terrorism; the international economy, processes of globalization of trade and investment that challenge the traditional understanding of the nation-state and have direct impacts on local communities in every part of the world, including the US; and the effect of culture — ethnic, national, religious — on international relations.

We’ll be doing this through in-class discussions of required readings and videos.

Course Objectives

1. By the end of the course you should be able to:

  • Analyze how the theories of Realism, Liberalism, Global Humanism, and Critical Theory lead people to see international relations in very different ways
  • Describe the relationship between assumed threats and military strategies
  • Outline the basic principles behind the current global economic order
  • Examine various viewpoints as applied to that economic order
  • Examine opposing arguments on how culture shapes international relations
  • Explain which international relations theory or theories examined in class is most similar to your own perspective.
  • Recognize the relationship between the global economic order, security threats, and military strategies.
  • Describe how the main international relations theories and assumptions give people the tools necessary to understand the day-to-day events reported in the media
  • Describe how the main international relations theories and assumptions give people the tools necessary to understand what leads to disagreements about international politics
  • Critically evaluate current international events and processes
  • Analyze articles of varying complexity on international topics

2. This course has been approved by IC’s Committee for College-Wide Requirements for meeting the qualifications of the Integrative Core Curriculum.  Contingent upon successful completion of all course requirements and the uploading of required learning outcome artifacts onto Taskstream (indicated elsewhere on this syllabus), this class meets and satisfies the ICC requirements for the Social Science perspective, themes of “World of Systems” (how do people make sense of and navigate complexity?) and “Power and Justice” (how are they related and how can they be balanced?).

If you are taking this course to fulfill one of those requirements, remember that you will need to include one paper from this course in your ICC portfolio. If you have questions please talk to me or to your major advisor.

3. The course has the following objectives as part of the overall Politics Department mission:

  • Students will demonstrate a capacity for critical writing
  • Students will demonstrate global awareness and understanding
  • Students will demonstrate critical self-consciousness about their ethical positions vis-à-vis political and civic life
  • Students will demonstrate sensitivity to and understanding of multiple perspectives, eg, class, race, gender, ethnicity, and sexuality.
  • Students will demonstrate a capacity to apply ideas to lived contexts

Course Materials

  • Required readings are in a course reader, a packet of photocopies (abbreviated CR in class assignments). The course reader can be purchased at the Ithaca College Bookstore, and costs $30.75. I expect every student to purchase a copy of the reader for the current semester.  Studies have shown that comprehension is much higher when a text is read on paper as opposed to on a screen.
  • Students should follow international issues in non-US newspapers that have substantial coverage of international issues. Examples from these sources will make up part of classroom discussion as well as some written assignments.When reading these newspapers, ask yourself what stories are not being reported, and what’s not being said in the stories that are being reported. Also think about how their coverage differs from the information you are seeing in the US media.
  • All assigned readings are included in the course reader. Some of the readings are also on web sites. These can be accessed by clicking on the links in the relevant places on the web version of the syllabus.

Readings listed as “Required” are mandatory — you should have read and thought about them before class — and serve as background for the class discussion. Readings listed as “Suggested” are not required, but provide further background and information on the topic under discussion.

The readings are of varying complexities; some are quite difficult. If you have any questions on the readings, please ask in class, or stop by my office.

I would suggest taking notes on the readings as you do them to ease review for exams. The assigned essays require an indepth understanding of specific assigned readings, so it is in your interest to do all required readings carefully. The amount of reading is generally small enough that you should have time to carefully read and take notes on the readings before each class.


What does “doing the readings” mean?

It doesn’t mean just sitting down and mechanically going through the articles; that’s a sure way to make even an interesting article boring.

Reading is an active and interactive process between the reader and the text. If you’re really reading a text you are also reacting to it. I’ve included a wide range of texts in order to provoke a wide range of responses from readers.

Reading should also be a reflective process. To really understand an article deeply it is usually necessary to read it and think about it, and then read it again, and think about it, and discuss it with others, write about it and read it yet again. I’ve found that even after many readings, when I read a text in order to explain it to someone else I get new perspectives on the author’s arguments and assumptions, on the text’s strengths and weaknesses.

So when I say “do the readings,” I mean “engage yourself with the ideas of the text.” I understand that some of the texts are quite complex and that not all of them are entertaining. But struggle is part of the reading experience. If something’s not clear, if it’s confusing, talk about it with others outside of class, and/or bring it up in class.

If it’s a long or complex reading, don’t try to do it all in one sitting; take breaks, come back to it, read it in small doses. As I mentioned above, taking notes on a text while you read it or re-read it is also a very good way to engage the text and to make sure you understand it.

If you do not understand the readings after we discuss them in class, please see me immediately. Some of the readings are very challenging, and I expect you to speak with me if anything is not clear.

NOTE: If you come to class consistently unprepared, I reserve the right to unilaterally drop you from the course.


The final grade in the class will be determined by:

  • Class participation (20% of final grade): This part of the final grade will be based on participation in class, which includes:
    • Attendance. I expect students to be present at every class. For every absence after the fourth one, your final grade will be reduced by a grade (that is, from an A to an A-, for example). Much of the learning in this class happens in the classroom, in discussions. If you are missing class you are missing a crucial part of the course.
    • Being prepared. I expect you to have done the assigned readings for the day and to have thought about them before class. Being consistently unprepared will significantly affect your final grade.
    • Participation. Classroom discussion of readings is a key part of the learning process. By actively taking part you also improve your chances of doing well on the written assignments.
    • No electronic devices. During class I expect all electronic devices to be turned off. This includes laptops, cell phones, iphones, tablets, etc. If you cannot bear to be parted from your device, you should take another class. Use of an electronic device in class will count as an absence for that day. Here are some of the reasons for this policy (from Scientific American). Here are even more (from a leading prof of new media). And here’s a good reason for you to turn off your phone and put it away where you can’t access it.
  • Written assignments.Please note that essays are due  by 4pm on the due date (except for Essay #3, due during final exam week).  Please submit the paper on Sakai by the due date, and give me a hard copy  by the next class.The grade is reduced by a grade (eg, from A to A-) for each day an assignment is late. It is your choice whether to hand the assignment in by the due date or afterward, but please be aware of these consequences.
    • Essay #1. Due Tuesday  10/3 by 4pm. (25% of final grade) A take-home exam on major IR theories. Submit on Sakai and give me a hard copy.
    • Essay #2.  by Tuesday 11/7 by 4pm. (25%) A take-home essay on issues of terrorism and the future of war.  Submit on Sakai and give me a hard copy.
    • Essay #3. Due (finals week), Thursday, 12/21 by 4pm. (30%) A take-home essay on the global economy and on culture in international relations.  Submit on Sakai and give me a hard copy.

Please note: You cannot pass the course unless you have handed in all written assignments.

Academic honesty

The Student Conduct Code of Ithaca College, Appendix II states that “Academic honesty is a cornerstone of the mission of the College. Unless it is otherwise stipulated, students may submit for evaluation only that work that is their own and that is submitted originally for a specific course.”

You must use quotation marks and citations for words that you have taken directly from a source. Likewise, you must use citations for closely paraphrased wordings of the original.  Needless to say, copying from other students is also a violation of this policy.

Students who plagiarize will receive a grade of F for the course and will be referred to Judicial Affairs for academic misconduct.

Meaning of grades:
A = excellent: intense effort and remarkable achievement.
B = good: good effort and pretty good understanding
C = okay: barely adequate amount of effort or effort that is somewhat misfocused or mistargeted
D = inadequate effort or mistargeted effort
F = little or no effort or complete misunderstanding of expectations
(Thanks to Naeem Inayatullah for these characterizations.)

If you get below a C, you should immediately come to see me so we can discuss your paper or exam.

If you have any questions about the class, the readings, the discussions, or anything else, I will be more than happy to meet with you either during office hours or at some other time. To schedule another time please see me after class, or contact me by e-mail or phone (274-1103).

Daily Assignments

  • Page numbers refer to the small typed numbers at the bottom of each page of the course reader

I. Introduction: Thinking about the international

In this first section we pose the questions we hope to answer in the course. We look at the assumptions that underlie how people think about international politics, examine a number of approaches to understanding international relations and world politics, and relate them to issues of interest.

Th 8/31 Introductions. Questions of War and Peace. Is peace a good thing? How do we come to see the world in particular ways?

Tu 9/5 Thinking about the international: The Crimea Crisis 2014
Required reading:
Map of Crimea Crisis, p.1
– Obama, “Statement by President on Ukraine”, pp.2-4
– Putin, “Interview to German TV channel ARD” (excerpts), pp.5-8
– Mearsheimer, “Getting Ukraine Wrong”, pp.9-12
To think about:
What are the differences between Obama’s, Putin’s, and Mearsheimer’s analyses of the Crimea situation? What reasons do Putin give for this move? Why is Obama critical of it?  Why does Mearsheimer disagree with Obama’s criticism? How does his explanation differ from Putin’s?  What are the implicit assumptions that each makes?

Th 9/7 Poverty and Health as international issues?
Required reading:
– Kidder, “The Good Doctor”, pp.13-23
– Coughlin & Ives, “WikiLeaks Haiti: Let them live on $3 a day”, pp.24-27
Suggested reading:
– “Wikileaks Haiti: The Nation Partners With Haïti Liberté on Release of Secret Haiti Cables”
– Web site of Partners in Health; the Zanmi Lasante project run by Paul Farmer (online)
– Farmer, “Whither Equity in Health? The State of the Poor in Latin America” (online, pdf)
To think about:
As you read this article, think about how health issues such as AIDS or social issues such as poverty are international issues. Can AIDS or poverty be understood through by looking at relations between states? Is health care a human right? Why does Paul Farmer believe it is? What kind of framework could help us understand the international politics of AIDS? Does it even make sense to talk about the international politics of poverty? How does Paul Farmer understand these issues? Think about the moral and ethical aspects as well as security aspects of the issues. Does morality have a place in international relations? Do citizens of wealthy countries have moral responsibilities to poor people in other countries? How would one go about establishing those responsibilities?

Tu 9/12 Thinking about World Politics: Perspectives and Approaches
Required reading:
– Goldstein, “IR as a Field of Study”, pp.28-32
To think about:
What is a theory? Why are there competing theories in the social sciences? What is an assumption? How can we understand the complexity of the international? How do we define the international?

Th 9/14 International Politics: Realism
Required reading:
– Mearsheimer, “Anarchy and the Struggle for Power”, pp.33-46
– Mearsheimer and Walt, “Keeping Saddam Hussein in a Box”, p.47-49
To think about:
Realists see the international order as power-based. What do they consider as important, and what do they see as less important? How is Mearsheimer and Walt’s argument in the second article an illustration of a Realist world view?

Tu 9/19 International Politics: Liberalism
Required reading:
– Russett & Oneal, “The Kantian Peace in the 21st Century”, pp.50-60
– Kundnani, “What is the Liberal International Order?”, pp.61-69
– Albright, “The End of Intervention“, pp.71-72
Links of interest:
– Debate: Realist vs. Unilateral liberal (neoconservative)
– National Security Strategy of the US, 2002
– National Security Strategy of the US, 2006
– National Security Strategy of the US, 2010 (pdf)
– George Bush’s June 1, 2002 speech at West Point
To think about:
Liberals believe security is best ensure in a liberal, rules-based international order. What makes a country liberal? How does the liberal view of domestic society influence their view of international relations? How is Albright’s argument based on a liberal perspective? What different assumptions do multilateral and unilateral liberals have that lead them to see the world so differently? Think about how the Liberal international order that Kundnani describes embodies the principles laid out by Russett and Oneal.

Th 9/21 International Politics: Global Humanism
Required reading:
– Gurtov, “World Politics in Global-Humanist Perspective”, pp.73-82
– O’Connell, “Pope in Bolivia Calls for ‘Structural Changes’ in World’s Economy”, pp.83-88
– Chomsky, “Whose security: How Washington protects itself and the corporate sector”, pp.89-98
– Hobden and Jones, “The US, The United Fruit Company, and Guatemala”, p.99
– Look over again Kidder, “The Good Doctor” pp.13-23, and Coughlin & Ives, “Wikileaks Haiti…” pp.24-27
Link of interest:
In the Human Interest, Gurtov’s blog
To think about:
How do Globalist Humanists see world politics? What is more important, and what is less important for them than for Realists and Liberals? How is the worldview of Paul Farmer, and of Pope Francis, reflective of a Global Humanist perspective?

Tu 9/26 International Politics: Critical theory & Conclusion of Theories section
Required reading:
– “Critical Theory, Constructivism, and Post-modernism”, p.100
– Miedzian, “‘Real Men,’ ‘Wimps,’ and Our National Security,” pp.101-111
– Frisinger, “Threatened men more pro war, SUVs”, p.112
To think about:
The ways in which identity, beliefs, experiences affect the way we understand the world and how we interact with others.

II. The Media and International Relations

Most people get most information about international politics and US foreign policy from the mass media, especially television. What is the impact of media on international relations? What gets covered and why? What are the links between government and the media? What is the impact on how we think about the international? What kind of information is available on the world wide web?

Th 9/28 – Tu 10/3 Democracy, the media, and foreign policy
– In class: Film, The Panama Deception
Discussion of film: Democracy, media and foreign policy
Suggested readings:
– Mark Cook and Jeff Cohen, “The Media Goes to War: How TV Sold the Panama Invasion”

Essay #1 Due Tuesday 10/3 by 4pm (25 percent of final grade)

III. Security: Terrorism and the Future of War

This section of the course considers the term “security,” which is one of the focuses of traditional international relations. We consider several definitions of the term and ways in which it has been extended to cover non-military issues. We discuss in particular the issues of terrorism and the future of war

Th 10/5 Historical background: The aftermath of the Cold War
Required Reading:
– Klare, “The Geopolitics of War”, pp.113-122
– Cooley, Unholy Wars, “Introduction”, pp.123-128
– Williams, “Rise of ISIS Terror Army…”, pp.129-131
– Campos, “Undressing the terror threat,” pp.132-136
Suggested reading:
– Shavit, Al Qaeda’s Saudi Origins
To think about:
The relationship between how the US fought the Cold War and the challenges it sees afterwards; the comparative power of its identified main adversaries during the Cold War and now; the continuity in the Cold War and post-Cold War eras. The relative threat of terrorism vs. traditional military conflict.

Tu 10/10 Terrorism: Strategic or Pure rage?
Required reading:
– Lemann, “What Terrorists Want: Is there a better way of defeating Al Qaeda?”, pp.137-145
– Bush, excerpts from Sept. 20, 2011 speech, pp.146-147
– “The Logic of Suicide Terrorism,” Interview with Robert Pape, pp.148-154
– Cole, “Sharpening Contradictions”, pp.147-150
Suggested reading:
– Pape, Rowley and Morell, “Why ISIL Beheads its Victims”
Link of interest:
University of Chicago Suicide Attack Database (Pape’s data)
To think about:
What is the definition of terrorism? What are the causes of terrorism? What 2 views of terrorism’s causes and solutions does Lemann identify in the article? How does Bush’s speech illustrate the “pure rage” view? How does Pape’s findings illustrate the “strategic” view?

Th 10/12  The Future of War: Counterinsurgency (COIN) and Asymmetrical Conflicts
Required reading:
– Barnett, “The Pentagon’s New Map,” pp.159-168
– Lieven, “Soldiers before missiles: Meeting the challenge from the world’s streets”, pp.169-175
– Critique: Yglesias, “The Space Race,” pp.177-178
Suggested reading:
– Record, “Why the Strong Lose” (online)
Video of interest:
Obama’s War (Frontline documentary on COIN strategy in Afghanistan)
Link of interest:
Barnett’s blog
US military field manual, US Military Counterinsurgency Manual, Dec 2006
– Office of the Under Secretary of Defense For Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, “Defense Science Board Study on Transition To and From Hostilities”
To think about:
What are the assumptions implicit in Barnett’s analysis? What are the main values, priorities, and motivations of key actors in his analysis? How does Lieven’s suggested war-fighting strategy fit with Barnett’s grand strategy? How do Yglesia’s assumptions lead him to such a different conclusion than Barnett?

Tu 10/17 Future of war: Netwar
Required reading:
– Arquilla, “The New Rules of War”, pp.179-193
– Newson, “Hybrid Warfare and its Implications“, pp.194-196
– Pomerantsev, “How Putin is Reinventing Warfare” pp.197-201
Link of interest:
– “The Advent of Netwar,” a 76 page report on the concept by Arquilla and a co-author.
– Galeotti, “‘Hybrid War’ and ‘Little Green Men’: How it Works, and How it Doesn’t” (the concept of hybrid war in the Russian military actions against Ukraine).
– Rutenberg, “RT, Sputnik and Russia’s New Theory of War”
To think about:
Does Arquilla’s concept of “Netwar” differ from what Lieven and Barnett are talking about? How does it relate to “Hybrid war”?  What is the threat in both these concepts? How are other states adapting their military strategies towards a netwar and/or hybrid war model? Think about the concept of asymmetrical warfare we discussed in the class on COIN.

Th 10/19 Fall Break

Tu 10/24 War, history, and empire
Required reading:
– Barkawi, “On the Pedagogy of ‘Small Wars'”, pp.202-221
To think about:
How does Barkawi’s approach differ from those we’ve read already? What are his assumptions regarding wars fought by the US and other great powers? How do his conclusions differ from the ones we’ve discussed to date? What would be his take on the various military strategies we’ve discussed?

Th 10/26 Shifts in the international system: A new international order?
Required reading:
– Jacques, “A New Sun Rises in the East”, pp.223-227
– Kaczmarski, “‘Silk globalisation’: China’s Vision of International Order”, pp.228-255
– Ikenberry, “The Future of the Liberal World Order”, pp.256-268
– Barnett, “The Chinese are our friends”, pp.269-276
To think about:
The extent to which the international order is a reflection of the historical values and identities of the most powerful actors.

IV. The International Economy

The globalization of the international economy seems to be one of the main features of the international system since the end of WWII, and especially in the past few decades. In this section we look at the development of the international economic system and discuss some issues linked with globalization of the economy.

Tu 10/31 The Global Economy: Traditional Background
Required reading:
– “International Political Economy,” excerpts, pp.277-300
To think about:
Alternative ways of understanding the global economy; the power of multinational corporations.

Th 11/2 The Global Economy: Liberal views
Required reading:
– Rosecrance, “The Virtual State”, pp.302-318
– Friedman, “It’s a Flat World, After All”, pp.319-331
To think about:
Rosecrance is writing in the mid-90s. What does Rosecrance see as the future role of the state? How does he define security? What is his argument in favor of the liberal global economy? What are the assumptions implicit in Friedman’s analysis; do you see how his basic assumptions are the same as Rosecrance’s? What are the main values, priorities, and motivations of key actors in his analysis? How does his argument differ from and update Rosecrance’s? What changed over the previous 10-15 years?

Tu 11/7 Globalization and the Third World
In Class: The New Rulers of the World
To think about:
How and why does the analysis of the film differ from Rosecrance’s and Friedman’s analyses?

Essay #2 Due Tu 11/7 by 4pm (25 percent of final grade)

Note: November 8 is the last day to withdraw from the course

Th 11/9 The Global Economy: Other views
Required reading:
– Chang, “The Lexus and the Olive Tree Revisited” pp.333-343
– Rodrik, “Put globalization to work for democracies”, pp.347-350
– Vidal, “Wikileaks: US targets US over GM crops” pp. 351-352
To think about:
Contrast the claims about the benefits of globalization made by Rosecrance and Friedman with Chang’s argument, and with the issues raised in the last two readings. Are states justified in pressuring others to adhere to their notion of free trade? Is protectionism ever justified?  Should sovereignty ever be subordinated to trade issues?

Tu 11/14 Global economy: what’s missing?
Required reading:
– Gray, “The World is Round”, pp.353-361
To think about:
What is Gray saying is important that Friedman (and Rosecrance) is missing? Why does he disagree so strongly with Friedman’s analysis?

Th 11/16 Global economy: China as an economic superpower
Required reading:
– Jacques, excerpts from When China Rules the World, pp.362-367
– Escobar, “How China and Russia are running rings around Washington,” pp.370-377
– Barboza, “China’s Industrial Ambition Soars to High-Tech”, pp.378-380
“The Belt and Road Initiative” (on Sakai; also online)
Zeneli, “Central and Eastern Europe: China’s Stepping Stone to the EU”, pp.386-388
Link of interest:
China in the Balkans: A battle of principles
To think about:
If the international economic order is determined by the most economically powerful actor, what might a Chinese-dominated global economy look like?  What shifts are currently occurring in the global order, according to Jacques and Escobar? Why are they happening? How are they happening? Think about the different views on the future of the international order and China’s role in it that we discussed earlier in the semester.

11/20-11/24 Thanksgiving break, no classes

V. Culture and Conflict

One of the striking aspects of the current international scene is that concurrent with globalization and removing borders, there are also growing numbers of violent conflicts at local and regional levels in which cultural themes (ethnic, religious, etc.) are prominent. Why this apparent contradiction? Is there a relation? What is the relationship between culture and human rights?

Tu 11/28  Civilizations and Cultures in Conflict?
Required reading:
– Huntington, “Clash of Civilizations?”, pp.389-416
To think about:
What are Huntington’s assumptions about culture and conflict? Why does he think that the nature of international relations is shifting in such a fundamental way? Does consuming western goods change a culture? Is that a good thing? What are the causes of violence? To get peace does everyone have to become like us? What would Huntington say about Rosecrance’s argument?

Th 11/30 Questioning the Clash
Required reading:
– Sen, “Civilizational Imprisonments”, pp.417-422
To think about:
What is a culture? What do you have in common with someone who shares a culture with you? What does Sen mean by culture?

Tu 12/5  Clash of Civilizations? Islam
Required readings:
– Esposito, excerpts from The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality?, pp.423-433
– Mehio, “How Islam and Politics Mixed,” pp.434-436
– Friedman, “Turkey Wings It”, p.437-438
– Tharoor, “The long history of Muslims and Christians killing people together”, pp.439-441
To think about:
How does the way Esposito, Mehio, and Friedman talk about Islam differ from Huntington’s use?  What do the events described by Tharoor tell us about religion and war?  What is the relationship — if any — between religion and international politics?

Th 12/7 Ethnic mobilization and conflict
In class showing of excerpt from “Beauty and the Beast”
Required reading:
– Gagnon, “Serbia’s Road to War”, just read the introductory section (pp.442-443, up to section head “reformists vs. conservatives”)
– “Bystanders,” Maas, p.450
– “What Ivan Said,” Drakulic, pp.451-456
– Bonner, “Rwandans in Death Squad Say Choice Was Kill or Die,” pp.457-460
Suggested reading:
– Bowen, “The Myth of Global Ethnic Conflict”
To think about:
What are the motivations of the participants in this violence? Think about the power of fear.

Tu 12/12 Culture and Human Rights 
Required readings:

– Sen, “Universal Truths: Human Rights and the Westernizing Illusion” pp.463-466
– Shaheed, “Cultures, Traditions and Violence Against Women: Human Rights Challenges” pp.467-474
– “We cannot accept cultural imperialism” (The Herald, Zimbabwe) pp.475-476
– Koyama, “The Uganda Controversy: Solidarity vs. Imperialism in LGBT Organizing” (please note the course reader is missing this article, it’s available online and on Sakai)
– Grant, “Thinking more broadly about cultural imperialism: LGBT rights around the world” pp.478-479
– Kaoma, “Only Fools Believe? Pastor Rick Warren and Global Homophobia” pp.480-482
– Shepherd, “The Politics of Uganda’s Anti-Homosexuality Legislation” pp.484-487
To think about:
Shaheed’s definition of culture. Are human rights culturally specific, or universal? Is enforcing or claiming universal human rights a form of imperialism? What is an alternative way of thinking about universal human rights?

Th 12/14 Conclusion

Essay #3 due Thursday December 21, 4pm (30 percent of final grade).